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Est-ce que le peer-review a changé en 30 ans ? Il ne s’est pas amélioré, mais seul le peer review ouvert est éthique

Points clés

Peer review congress ChicagoEn 1986, Drummond Rennie annonçait le premier congrès sur le peer-review à Chicago (1989) avec des formulations toujours d'actualité en 2016 : "There are scarcely any bars to eventual publication. There seems to be no study too fragmented, no hypothesis too trivial, no literature citation too biased or too egotistical, no design too warped, no methodology too bungled, no presentation of results too inaccurate, too obscure, and too contradictory, no analysis too self-serving, no argument too circular, no conclusions too trifling or too unjustified, and no grammar and syntax too offensive for a paper to end up in print

En juillet 2016, Drummond Rennie dans Nature revient sur les dates importantes pour le peer-review avec un titre provocateur :'Let's make peer review scientific". D Rennie est un ardent défenseur de l'open peer review, comme fait le BMJ, et tout lui donne raison. La communauté scientifique est très frileuse pour adopter le peer review ouvert ! Pourtant le seul peer review éthique et intègre est le peer review ouvert…    Avant d'annoncer le 8éme congrès du peer review en 2017 à Chicago, il liste ainsi les dates principales concernant le peer reviex, à vous de juger :

1978–79 Revelations of scientific fraud at Yale and Harvard universities publicizes the issue.

1978–92 The Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials is set up by Iain Chalmers. He later establishes the Cochrane Collaboration and its systematic analyses.

1986 Studies demonstrate publication bias in clinical trials; it is caused by the failure of trial authors to submit results for publication.

1989 Regulations defining scientific misconduct and a procedure to address allegations are codified into US law. Peer review is revealed to be ineffective against misconduct.

1989 The first Peer Review Congress held in Chicago, Illinois. It includes a trial of blinding reviewers to authors’ identities.

1993 The Cochrane Collaboration, founded to review published reports relevant to health, reveals inherent biases.

1996 The CONSORT statement on reporting clinical trials is released, with a checklist to assist authors and reviewers.

1999 The British Medical Journal adopts open peer review on the basis of evidence from randomized trials of the practice.

2000–Present Online-only journals rise in prominence along with new models of peer review.

2004 Clinical-trial pre-registration is made a condition of publication.

2006 The EQUATOR Network is founded to assemble reporting guidelines.

2010 ‘Beall’s list’ warns against ‘predatory’ journals with questionable peer review.

2014–Present Groups (including ORCID, CASRAI, F1000 working group) are founded to support and credit reviewers.

2017 Eighth Peer Review Congress to be held in Chicago.

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